Thyroid Problems Symptoms

A thyroid disorder is an endocrine problem associated with the impairment of thyroid gland function. Thyroid hormones play an important role in regulating energy levels, utilization of different vitamins, including hormones, and to promote the tissue growth and maturation in the body. The problems of thyroid gland can cause any of these following conditions such as hyperthyroidism due to an increased thyroid hormone level as a result of overactive thyroid; hypothyroidism, as a result of reduced thyroid hormone level caused by an under active thyroid disease; thyroid nodules; and goiter. Read on to learn about various types of thyroid disorders and their associated symptoms.

Types of thyroid problems         

Thyroid disorders are generally grouped into four main types as follows:

Hyperthyroidism –An abnormal condition characterized by the over-production of thyroid hormone from an overactive thyroid.

  • Graves’ disease
  • Thyroid storm
  • Toxic thyroid nodule
  • Hashitoxicosis
  • Toxic nodular struma (Plummer’s disease)

Hypothyroidism –An abnormal condition associated with very low levels of thyroid hormone as a result of an under active thyroid.

  • Ord’s thyroiditis
  • Hashimoto’s thyroiditis / thyroiditis
  • Postpartum thyroiditis
  • Postoperative hypothyroidism
  • Acute thyroiditis
  • Silent thyroiditis
  • Thyroid hormone resistance
  • Iatrogenic hypothyroidism
  • Euthyroid sick syndrome

Goiter -Condition associated with the enlargement of thyroid gland.

  • Diffuse goitre
  • Endemic goitre
  • Lingual thyroid
  • Multinodulargoitre
  • Thyroglossal duct cyst
  • Benign (noncancerous) thyroid disease
  • Thyroid adenoma- Benign thyroid tumor

Thyroid Nodules – Thyroid gland presents with nodular lumps

Thyroiditis –Condition associated with the Inflammation of thyroid gland.

Thyroid Cancer –Development of malignant thyroid tissue or nodules.

  • Follicular carcinoma of thyroid
  • Anaplastic carcinoma
  • Papillary carcinoma
  • Medullary carcinoma
  • Lymphomas

Thyroid hormone deficiencies Cretinism- deficiency of thyroid hormone in children

Myxedema- thyroid hormone deficiency in adults

Symptoms associated with various thyroid problems



It is a state that involves over-production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland and the condition is commonly known as “overactive thyroid.”


It is commonly caused by an increased intake of dietary iodine.

Graves disease is the most common cause for hyperthyroidism in many cases

Thyroiditis or thyroid gland inflammation associated with viral infections can also cause the condition

It is also caused by the growth of noncancerous tissue in the pituitary gland or thyroid gland

  • Tumors involving ovaries or testes
  • Thyroid hormone excess
  • Symptoms of hyperthyroidism
  • irritability
  • Nervousness
  • Fine brittle hair
  • Shaky hands
  • Increased perspiration
  • Panic disorder
  • Skin thinning
  • Insomnia
  • Muscular weakness in thighs and upper arms
  • Racing heart
  • Weight loss despite having a good appetite
  • Frequent bowel movements
  • Fatigue
  • Concentration difficulty
  • Irregular menstrual periods
  • Heat intolerance
  • Nervousness
  • Increased sweating
  • Restlessness
  • Irregular menstrual periods
  • Weight loss
  • Gynecomastia (breast development in men)
  • Diarrhea
  • Clammy skin
  • High blood pressure
  • Hand tremor
  • Rarely weight gain
  • Hair loss
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Itching
  • Pounding, or irregular pulse
  • Skin flushing
  • Exophthalmos (protruding eyes)
  • Irregular heartbeat (palpitations)
  • Weakness
  • Insomnia


Hypothyroidism is a condition that is associated with insufficient production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.

It is called as myxedema in adults and cretinism in children.


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  • It is caused by the production of antibodies against the thyroid gland by the immune system.
  • Condition is triggered by cold, respiratory infection or during pregnancy
  • Intake of certain medications like amiodarone, radioactive iodine and lithium
  • Radiation therapy to the head and neck tumors
  • Congenital birth defects
  • Surgical excision of a part of thyroid gland
  • Symptoms of myxedema
  • Early symptoms include constipation or Hard stools
  • Increased cold sensitivity
  • Heavy menstrual periods
  • Dry, or Pale skin
  • Depression
  • Fatigue
  • Joint or muscle pain
  • Weakness
  • Thin and brittle hair or fingernails
  • Unintentional weight gain
  • Late symptoms include Hoarseness
  • Puffiness of the hands, face, and feet
  • Reduced perception to smell and taste
  • Slow speech
  • Eyebrow thinning
  • Thickening of the skin


Goiter is a condition that is associated with the enlargement of thyroid gland or development of thyroid nodules

Goiter is of different varieties

  • Simple goiter – It has no apparent cause and occurs when the thyroid gland enlarges in size in an effort to produce sufficient thyroid hormone to meet the body demands.
  • Toxic nodular goiter – Presents with the thyroid gland enlargement with characteristic small, rounded growths referred as nodules, which produce excess of thyroid hormone.
  • Symptoms of goiter
  • Swollen thyroid gland that can occur as a small nodule or a large lump in the neck.
  • Swelling often impinges pressure on trachea and esophagus resulting in
  • Hoarseness
  • Breathing difficulty, in case of large goiters
  • Dysphagia
  • Cough
  • Simple goiter may present with an under active thyroid gland

Benign (non-cancerous) thyroid disease

It is generally classified into benign toxic, benign nontoxic and inflammatory conditions.

Diffuse nontoxic goiter is caused by an increased production of TSH from an enlarging thyroid gland, thus resulting in multi-nodular goiters.

Long term multi-nodular goiter presents with clinical or subclinical thyrotoxicosis; tracheal compression including stridor, dyspnea, choking sensation and cough.

Rapidly enlarging thyroid gland compresses neck veins, causes vocal cord paralysis, pain due to hemorrhage, often leading to an acute airway obstruction.

Thyroid cancer

Thyroid cancer is associated with the malignant tumor growth in the thyroid gland

Symptoms include:

  • Cough
  • Neck swelling
  • Dysphagia
  • Thyroid enlargement
  • Thyroid nodule
  • Voice hoarseness